Catastrophic wildfire kills practically all vegetation and can devastate entire watersheds, resulting in deposits of ash and other sediments in salmon spawning and rearing habitat. Forests throughout the Inland West were shaped and maintained by wildfires of various intensities. After decades of successful suppression, fire no longer plays the natural role it once did in maintaining the numbers and types of trees best adapted to particular sites. A result has been overcrowded stands of trees poorly suited to their sites. This encourages insect infestations and disease epidemics that weaken and kill trees, creating hazardous fuel conditions and severe wildfires. As an example, the 1989 Tanner Gulch wildfire devastated more than 3,500 acres in Oregon’s Grand Ronde Basin. 13 Intense rainstorms finally extinguished the fire, but ash and sediment destroyed much of the salmon habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River. The effects of the fire killed both adult and juvenile salmon. Such events demonstrate the necessity of active forest management to thin out dense forests, reducing fire hazards by restoring more natural conditions. This is especially important in the drought- and insect-ravaged inland forests of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.